Sanskrit Words Related to Individuality


  • "the thread-like continuity of personality or individual life running through the whole cycle of re-births"
  • state of concentration on one single object , tranquillity , blissful serenity

éko* ti---bhāva [p= 230,3] [L=39934]
state of concentration on one single object , tranquillity , blissful serenity (state of mind , following after conversion) , ( Buddh. )
eko* ti-bhāva [p= 1323,1] [L=325390]
Buddh. ).
(H4) m.
(H2) (read, "the thread-like continuity of personality or individual life running through the whole cycle of re-births",


the subtle body which accompanies the individual spirit or soul in all its transmigrations and is not destroyed by death. Since it is the sign and accompaniment of individuality it can never perish till the individualized soul is finally merged in the Universal.


Name and form. Individual being.

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Monier Williams (196,198 entries)

Sanskrit Words for Individual

1 adhyātmam (individual) 2 apekṣā (individual) 3 ātman (individual) 4 āśaya (individual) 5 upalakṣaṇa (individual) 6 ṛgveda (individual) 7 ekoddiṣṭa (individual) 8 caitya (individual) 9 jāti (individual) 10 jīvatva (individual) 11 jīvātman (individual) 12 deha (individual) 13 dravya (individual) 14 nāmarūpa (individual) 15 nirātmaka (individual) 16 nirvāṇa (individual) 17 pākṣāntara (individual) 18 parāpara (individual) 19 parinirvā (individual) 20 paśu (individual) 21 paśutva (individual) 22 paśupāśa (individual) 23 piṇḍasambandha (individual) 24 pudgala (individual) 25 pṛthakkṛti (individual) 26 pṛthagātman (individual) 27 pṛthagātmikā (individual) 28 pratināmagrahaṇam (individual) 29 pratyātmaviniyata (individual) 30 pratyañc (individual) 31 pratyakpravaṇa (individual) 32 pratyagātman (individual) 33 pratyagātmatā (individual) 34 pratyabhijñā (individual) 35 pralayākala (individual) 36 brahman (individual) 37 bhūtātman (individual) 38 mantra (individual) 39 mahānirvāṇa (individual) 40 yoga (individual) 41 lalāṭa (individual) 42 liṅgaśarīra (individual) 43 vigraha (individual) 44 vijñānakevala (individual) 45 viśeṣa (individual) 46 viśeṣin (individual) 47 viśva (individual) 48 vedānta (individual) 49 vaiśeṣin (individual) 50 vyakta (individual) 51 vyakti (individual) 52 vyaṣṭi (individual) 53 vyastatā (individual) 54 vyastatva (individual) 55 samavāyin (individual) 56 haṃsa (individual) 57 ekotibhāva (individual)
adhy-ātmám [p= 23,2] [L=4638]
concerning self or individual personality.

(H1C) ind.
ape* kā [p= 56,3] [L=10370]
looking round or about , consideration of , reference , regard to (in comp. ; rarely loc.)

(H2) f.
[L=10371]dependence on , connection of cause with effect or of individual with species
[L=10372]looking for , expectation , hope , need , requirement

ātmán [p= 135,1] [L=23455]
(variously derived fr. an , to breathe ; at , to move ; , to blow ; cf. tmán) the breath RV.

RV. AV. &c

e.g. ātmán (Ved. loc.) dhatte , or karoti , " he places in himself " , makes his own TS. v S3Br. ; ātmanā akarot , " he did it himself " Ka1d. ; ātmanā vi-yuj , " to lose one's life " Mn. vii , 46 ; ātman in the sg. is used as reflexive pronoun for all three persons and all three genders e.g. ātmāna sā hanti , " she strikes herself " ; putram ātmana spṛṣṭvā nipetatu , " they two having touched their son fell down " R. ii , 64 , 28 ; see also below s.v. ātmanā ]

ifc. e.g. karmā*tman , &c ) RV. x , 97 , 11 , &c

VS. S3Br.

Ragh. i , 14 Ra1matUp.

ifc.) " the understanding , intellect , mind " » naṣṭā*tman , mandā

brahma (cf. paramā*tman) AV. x , 8 , 44 VS. xxxii , 11 S3Br. xiv , &c


= dhti) firmness L.



L. ; [Old Germ. a1tum ; Angl.Sax. oedhm ; Mod. Germ. Athem , Odem ; Gk. ϋτμήν , (?).]
(H1) m.
[L=23456]the soul , principle of life and sensation
[L=23457]the individual soul , self , abstract individual [
[L=23463]essence , nature , character , peculiarity (often
[L=23464]the person or whole body considered as one and opposed to the separate members of the body
[L=23465]the body
[L=23467]the highest personal principle of life ,
[L=23470]the sun
[L=23472]a son
āśaya [p= 157,2] [L=27429]
» 3. ā-śī.
ā-śaya [p= 157,3] [L=27492]
resting-place , bed

S3Br. MBh. Pan5cat. Bhag. &c

e.g. raktā*śaya , " the receptacle of blood " i.e. the heart ; āmā*śaya , the stomach &c ) Sus3r.


Ya1jn5. R. Katha1s. &c

Prab. Katha1s. Pan5cat.

yoga phil.) " stock " or " the balance of the fruits of previous works , which lie stored up in the mind in the form of mental deposits of merit or demerit , until they ripen in the individual soul's own experience into rank , years , and enjoyment "(Cowell's translation of Sarvad. 168 , 16 ff.)


of the plant Artocarpus Integrifolia L.
ā-śayá [p= 1320,2] [L=320430]

S3Br. )
(H1) &c
(H2) m.
[L=27493]seat , place
[L=27494]an asylum , abode or retreat
[L=27495]a receptacle
[L=27496]any recipient
[L=27497]any vessel of the body (
[L=27498]the stomach
[L=27499]the abdomen
[L=27500]the seat of feelings and thoughts , the mind , heart , soul
[L=27501]thought , meaning , intention
[L=27502]disposition of mind , mode of thinking
[L=27504]the will
[L=27511]a miser , niggard
(H2) (
upa-lakaa [p= 205,3] [L=35631]
the act of observing S3ak. 142 , 4

Ka1tyS3r. Comm. on Pa1n2.

VPra1t. Comm. on Pa1n2. Sa1h. Nya1yak. &c

Vikr. Katha1s.

(H2) n.
[L=35633]the act of implying something that has not been expressed , implying any analogous object where only one is specified
[L=35634]using a term metaphorically or elliptically or in a generic sense
[L=35635]synecdoche (of a part for the whole , of an individual for the species , or of a quality for that in which it resides)
[L=35636]a mark
g--vedá [p= 225,1] [L=38737]
" Hymn - veda " or " veda of praise " , the g-veda , or most ancient sacred book of the Hindus (that is , the collective body of sacred verses called cas [see below] , consisting of 1017 hymns [or with the vālakhilyas 1028] arranged in eight aṣṭakas or in ten maṇḍalas ; maṇḍalas 2-8 contain groups of hymns , each group ascribed to one author or to the members of one family ; the ninth book contains the hymns sung at the soma ceremonies ; the first and tenth contain hymns of a different character , some comparatively modern , composed by a greater variety of individual authors ; in its wider sense the term g-veda comprehends the brāhmaas and the sūtra works on the ritual connected with the hymns) AitBr. S3Br. Mn. &c

(H3) m.
eko* ddiṣṭa [p= 230,3] [L=39940]
(scil. śrāddha) a funeral ceremony having reference to one individual recently dead (not including ancestors generally) A1s3vGr2. iv , 7 , 1 Mn. iv , 110 VP. &c
(H3) n.
caitya 1 [p= 402,2] [L=75036]
(fr. 5. cit or 2. citi) the individual soul BhP. iii , 26 ; 28 , 28 ; 31 , 19 Sarvad. ii , 198f.
caitya 2 [L=75037]
relating to a funeral pile or mound (citā) A1s3vGr2. iii , 6 Gr2ihya1s. ii , 4
caitya 2 [L=75038]
n. a funeral monument or stūpa (q.v.) or pyramidal column containing the ashes of deceased persons , sacred tree (esp. a religious fig-tree) growing on a mound , hall or temple or place of worship (esp. with Buddh. and Jain. and generally containing a monument) , a sanctuary near a village A1s3vGr2. i , 12 Para1s3. Ya1jn5. ii , 151 & 228 MBh. &c
caitya 2 [L=75039]
a Jain or Buddh. image L.
caitya 2 [L=75040]
= °tyaka , ii , 814 .
(H2) m.
(H1) mfn.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
jāti [p= 418,1] [L=78658]
birth , production AitBr. ii , 39 Mn. MBh. (also ° , xiii f.) &c

R. i , 62 , 17 Ka1ran2d2. xxiii , 193

&c ) fixed by birth Mn. iv , 148 f. Yogas. ii , 13

ifc.) Katha1s. xviii , 98

Ka1tyS3r. xv Mn. Ya1jn5. &c (° MBh. xiv , 2549)

La1t2y. Ka1tyS3r. Pa1n2. &c , (once ° ifc. MBh. vi , 456)


Car. ii , 1

Ya1jn5. ii , 246 MBh. xii , 5334

Nya1yad. v , 1 ff. Sarvad. xi , 10 and 34 Prab. Sch.

rhet.) a particular figure of speech Sarasv. ii , 1

R. i , 4 , 6 Ka1vya7d. i , 11



= °) mace , nutmeg Sus3r.

grandiflorum L.

°tī-phalā L.

kampilla L. cf. antya- , eka- , dvi- - ([cf. Lat. gens ; Lith. pri-gentis])
jāti [p= 1327,3] [L=331870]

(H2) f.
[L=78660]the form of existence (as man , animal ,
[L=78662]position assigned by birth , rank , caste , family , race , lineage
[L=78663]kind , genus (opposed to species) , species (opposed to individual) , class
[L=78664]the generic properties (opposed to the specific ones)
[L=78665]natural disposition to
[L=78666]the character of a species , genuine or true state of anything
[L=78667]reduction of fractions to a common denominator
[L=78668]a self-confuting reply (founded merely on similarity or dissimilarity)
[L=78670]a class of metres
[L=78671]a manner of singing
[L=78672]a fire-place
(H2) (in
jīvá--tva [p= 422,3] [L=79671]
the state of life Ra1matUp. i , 14
jīvá--tva [L=79672]
the state of the individual soul KapS. vi , 63.
(H3) n.
(H3) n.
jīvā* tman [p= 423,1] [L=79767]
the living or personal or individual soul (as distinct from the paramā*t° q.v.) , the vital principle Tarkas. BhP. vi , viii Sarvad. iv;vii , 57.
(H3) m.
deha [p= 496,3] [L=96630]
( √ dih , to plaster , mould , fashion) the body TA1r. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. &c

manas and vāc) Mn. i , 104 &c

°hadhāraya , to support the body i.e. exist Nal. )

ifc. f(ā).) Var.


ifc. having the appearance of (sadeha- Ba1lar. iii , 43÷44)

of a country L.
deha [p= 1329,1] [L=334010]

(H1) mn.
[L=96631](in a triad with
[L=96633]form , shape , mass , bulk (as of a cloud ;
[L=96634]person , individual
[L=96635]appearance , manifestation
(H2) (in
dravya [p= 501,1] [L=97631]
a substance , thing , object Up. Mn. MBh. &c

MBh. R.


phil.) elementary substance (9 in the nyāya , viz. pthivī , ap , tejas , vāyu , ākāśa kāla , diś , ātman , manas ; 6 with jainas , viz. jīva , dharma , adharma , pudgala , kāla , ākāśa)

Gr.) single object or person , individual (cf. eka-)

cf. ā-.)

Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c

R. vii , 18 , 34 Sch.




dravya 2 [p= 501,2] [L=97736]
(fr. 4. dru) derived from or relating to a tree Pa1n2. 4-3 , 161

S3a1n3khBr. x , 2
dravya 2 [L=97738]
lac , gum , resin L.
dravya [p= 1329,1] [L=334180]
(H2) n.
[L=97632]the ingredients or materials of anything
[L=97633]medicinal substance or drug
[L=97636]fit object or person (
[L=97637]object of possession , wealth , goods , money
[L=97639]bell-metal , brass
[L=97641]spirituous liquor
[L=97642]a stake , a wager
(H1) mfn.
[L=97737]tree-like or corresponding to a tree
(H1B) n.
(H2) (in
nāma--rūpá [p= 536,2] [L=105792]
du. name and form Br. Up. &c (°*tmaka mfn. )

MWB. 102.

(H3) n.
[L=105792.1]= individual being
nir--ātmaka [p= 540,1] [L=106726]
having no separate soul or no individual existence BhP.
(H3) mfn.

nir-° a [p= 557,3] [L=109972]
blown or put out , extinguished (as a lamp or fire) , set (as the sun) , calmed , quieted , tamed (cf. a-nirv°) , dead , deceased (lit. having the fire of life extinguished) , lost , disappeared MBh. Ka1v. &c


nir-° a [L=109976]
blowing out , extinction , cessation , setting , vanishing , disappearance (°a-k , to make away with anything i.e. not to keep one's promise)
nir-° a [L=109977]
extinction of the flame of life , dissolution , death or final emancipation from matter and re-union with the Supreme Spirit MBh. &c
nir-° a [L=109978]
(with Buddhists and jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation (= śūnya L. ) of individual existence or of all desires and passions MWB. 137-139 &c
nir-° a [L=109979]
perfect calm or repose or happiness , highest bliss or beatitude MBh. Ka1v. &c
nir-° a [L=109980]
N. of an upaniad
nir-° a [L=109981]
instructing in sciences L.
nir-° a [L=109982]
bathing of an elephant L.
nir-° a [L=109983]
the post to which an elephant is tied Gal.
nir-° a [L=109984]

offering oblations (for 1. nir-vāpaa ?) L.
(H3) mfn.
[L=109973]immersed , plunged
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
* kā* ntara [p= 574,1] [L=113188]
an individual or particular case L.

S3ak. Sch.
(H3) n.
[L=113189]another side or view of an argument
parā* para [p= 587,3] [L=116340]
remote and proximate , prior and posterior (as cause and effect) , earlier and later , higher and lower , better and worse MBh. Ka1v. &c
parā* para [L=116341]
= -guru below
parā* para [L=116342]
(in logic) a community of properties in a small class under the larger or generic , a species or class between the genus and individual W.
parā* para [L=116343]

Grewia Asiatica Bhpr.
(H3) mfn.
(H3B) m.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
pari-nir- √ vā 2 [p= 596,2] [L=117828]
-vāti , to be completely extinguished or emancipated (from individual existence) , attain absolute rest Lalit. : Caus. -vāpayati , to emancipate completely by causing extinction of all re-births Vajracch.
(H1) P.

paśu 1 [p= 611,2] [L=120518]
see , behold! L.
paśu 2 [L=120532]
(instr. paśúnā or °śva ; dat. páśve or paśáve ; gen. paśvás or °śos ; du. paśvā́ ; acc. pl. paśvás or °śū́n) cattle , kine (orig. " any tethered animal " ; singly or collect. " a herd ") , a domestic or sacrificial animal (as opp. to mga , " wild animal " ; 5 kinds are enumerated , " men , kine , horses , goats and sheep " [ AV. xi , 2 , 9 &c ] , to which are sometimes added mules arid asses [ MBh. vi , 155 &c ] or camels and dogs [ AV. iii , 10 , 6 Comm.]) RV. &c
páśu [p= 611,3] [L=120533]
(instr. paśúnā or °śva ; dat. páśve or paśáve ; gen. paśvás or °śos ; du. paśvā́ ; acc. pl. paśvás or °śū́n) cattle , kine (orig. " any tethered animal " ; singly or collect. " a herd ") , a domestic or sacrificial animal (as opp. to mga , " wild animal " ; 5 kinds are enumerated , " men , kine , horses , goats and sheep " [ AV. xi , 2 , 9 &c ] , to which are sometimes added mules arid asses [ MBh. vi , 155 &c ] or camels and dogs [ AV. iii , 10 , 6 Comm.]) RV. &c

cf. nara-p° and n-p°)

i.e. an uninitiated person Cat.

AitA1r. BhP.

RV. i , 166 6 an , ass L.


śiva's followers L.

māheśvaras and pāśupatas) the individual soul as distinct from the divine Soul of the universe RTL. 89

Glomerata L.

pl.) N. of a people MBh. (v.l. patti)
páśu [L=120543]
cattle (only as acc. before manyate [ VS. xxiii , 30] and manyamāna [ RV. iii , 53 , 23] ; and pl. paśūni R. Katha1s. ) ([cf. Zd. pasu ; Lit. pecu ; Old Pruss. pecku ; Goth. fai4hu ; Germ. fihu , vihe , Vieh ; Angl.Sax. feoh ; Eng. fee.])
paśu [p= 1330,1] [L=335850]
(H2) ind.
(H2) m.
(H3) m.
[L=120534]any animal or brute or beast (also applied contemptuously to a man ;
[L=120535]a mere animal in sacred things
[L=120536]an animal sacrifice
[L=120538]a goat
[L=120539]a subordinate deity and one of
(H3B) n.
(H2) (in
paśu--tva [p= 611,3] [L=120566]
= -tā R. Prab. Ra1jat.

māheśvaras and pāśupatas) the being the individual soul.
(H3) n.

paśu--pāśa [L=120607]
the cord with which the victim is bound L.

(H3) m.
[L=120608]the chains which fetter the individual soul , the world of sense
ṇḍa--sambandha [p= 625,3] [L=123856]
relationship qualifying a living individual to offer śrāddha oblations to a dead person Gaut.
(H3) m.
pudgala [p= 633,2] [L=125648]
(ā)n. beautiful , lovely , handsome Ma1rkP.
pudgala [L=125649]
the body Hit. i , 41 v.l.
pudgala [L=125650]
(with jainas) material object (including atoms) S3am2k. MWB. 535
pudgala [L=125651]
the soul , personal entity Lalit.
pudgala [L=125652]
man Var.
pudgala [L=125653]
the Ego or individual (in a disparaging sense) SaddhP.
pudgala [L=125654]
N. of śiva MBh. (= deha Ni1lak. )
pudgala [L=125655]
a horse of the colour of rock-crystal Gal.
(H1) mf
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
pṛ́thak--kti [p= 645,3] [L=128389]
an individual BhP.
(H3) f.
pthag--ātman [p= 646,1] [L=128416]
" having a separate nature or essence " , separate , distinct , individual W.
pthag--ātman [L=128417]
individualized spirit , the individual soul (as distinct from universal spirit or the soul of the universe) ib.
(H3) mfn.
(H3B) m.
pthag--āt° mikā [L=128420]
separate or individual existence , individuality L.
(H4) f.
prati--nā° ma---grahaam [p= 662,1] [L=131548.2]
práti-) ind. mentioning each individual name Ka1d.
(H4) (
praty--āt° maviniyata [p= 664,2] [L=132063.2]
individual Car.
(H4) mfn.
praty--áñc [p= 664,1] [L=131983]
praty-áñc [p= 675,1] [p= 674,3] [L=133872]
(nom. pratyá. pratī́cī , pratīcī́ [and pratyañcī Vop. ] ; pratyák) turned towards , facing (acc.) RV. AV. VS.
675,1] [L=133873]
opp. to arvāñc , " going ") RV.

ib. Br. Ka1tyS3r.

abl.) VS. AV. Br. Mn. &c

Prab. BhP. Veda7ntas.

acc.) AV.

praty-áñc [L=133879]
the individual soul Prab. vi , 4÷5
praty-áñc [L=133881]
N. of a river BhP.
praty-áñc [L=133883]
behind (abl.) Ka1tyS3r.
praty-áñc [L=133884]
down (opp. to ūrdhvam) Kat2hUp.
praty-áñc [L=133885]
westward , to the west of (abl.) S3rS. MBh. BhP.
praty-áñc [L=133886]
inwardly , within BhP. Veda7ntas.
praty-áñc [L=133887]
in former times L.
(H3) »
(H1) mfn.
[p= coming (
[L=133874]being or coming from behind , turning the back , averted , moving in an opposite direction
[L=133875]westward , western , occidental , to the west of (
[L=133876]turned back or inward , inner , interior
[L=133877]equal to , a match for (
[L=133878]past , gone
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
pratyak--pravaa [L=133942]
devoted to the individual soul
(H3) mfn.
pratyag--ātman [L=133957]
the individual soul Kat2hUp. Veda7ntas. BhP. &c

Ba1dar. Sch.
(H3) m.
[L=133958]an individual
pratyag--āt° ma-tā [L=133959]
being an individual soul Ra1matUp.
(H4) f.
praty-abhi- √ jñā [p= 675,2] [L=134004]
-jānāti , -jānīte , to recognize , remember , know , understand MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; 
to come to one's self , recover consciousness
Katha1s. : Caus. -jñāpayati , to recall to mind S3am2k.
praty-° abhijñā [L=134005]
recognition Kap. Bha1sha1p. &c (ifc. °jña mfn. Das3. Ra1jat. )

(H1) P. A1.
(H3) f.
[L=134006]regaining knowledge or recognition (of the identify of the Supreme and individual soul)
pra-° layā* kala [p= 690,1] [L=136616]
(an individual soul) to which mala and karman still adhere (with śaivas) Sarvad.
(H3) mfn.
bráhman [p= 737,3] [L=146546]
(lit. " growth " , " expansion " , " evolution " , " development " " swelling of the spirit or soul " , fr. √2. bh) pious effusion or utterance , outpouring of the heart in worshipping the gods , prayer RV. AV. VS. TS.

opp. to vāc , the word of man) , the veda , a sacred text , a text or mantra used as a spell (forming a distinct class from the cas , sāmāni and yajūṃṣi ; cf. brahma-veda) RV. AV. Br. Mn. Pur.

brāhmaa portion of the veda Mn. iv , 100

Prab. , Sch. , (cf. Mn. ii , 83)

opp. to religious observances and bodily mortification such as tapas &c ) AV. Br. Mn. R.

esp. continence , chastity ; cf. brahma-carya) S3ak. i , 24÷25 S3am2k. Sarvad.
738,1] [p= 737,3] [L=146552]
m.) the brahma or one self-existent impersonal Spirit , the one universal Soul (or one divine essence and source from which all created things emanate or with which they are identified and to which they return) , the Self-existent , the Absolute , the Eternal (not generally an object of worship but rather of meditation and-knowledge ; also with jyéṣṭha , prathama-já , svayóm-bhu , a-mūrta , para , paratara , parama , mahat , sanātana , śāśvata ; and = paramā*tman , ātman , adhyātma , pradhāna , ketra-jña , tattva) AV. S3Br. Mn. MBh. &c ( IW. 9 , 83 &c )
bráhman [p= 738,1] [L=146553]
the class of men who are the repositories and communicators of sacred knowledge , the Brahmanical caste as a body (rarely an individual Brahman) AV. TS. VS. S3Br. Mn. BhP.
bráhman [L=146554]
food Naigh. ii , 7
bráhman [L=146555]
wealth ib. 10
bráhman [L=146556]
final emancipation L.
bráhman [L=146557]
(brahmán) , one who Prays , a devout or religious man , a Brahman who is a knower of Vedic texts or spells , one versed in sacred knowledge RV. &c ([cf. Lat. , fla1men])
bráhman [L=146558]
N. of bhas-pati (as the priest of the gods) RV. x , 141 , 3
bráhman [L=146559]
one of the 4 principal priests or tvijs (the other three being the hot , adhvaryu and udgāt ; the brahman was the most learned of them and was required to know the 3 vedas , to supervise the , sacrifice and to set right mistakes ; at a later period his functions were based especially on the atharva-veda) RV. &c
bráhman [L=146560]
brahmā or the one impersonal universal Spirit manifested as a personal Creator and as the first of the triad of personal gods (= prajā-pati q.v. ; he never appears to have become an object of general worship , though he has two temples in India » RTL. 555 &c ; his wife is sarasvatī ib. 48) TBr. &c
bráhman [L=146561]
= brahmaa āyu , a lifetime of brahmā Pan5car.
bráhman [L=146562]
an inhabitant of brahmā's heaven Ja1takam.
bráhman [L=146563]
the sun L.
bráhman [L=146564]
N. of śiva Prab. Sch.
bráhman [L=146565]
the veda (?) Pa1rGr2.
bráhman [L=146566]
the intellect (= buddhi) Tattvas.
bráhman [L=146567]
N. of a star , δ Aurigae , Su1ryat. ??
bráhman [L=146568]
a partic. astron. yoga L.
bráhman [L=146569]
N. of the 9th muhūrta L.
bráhman [L=146570]
(with jainas) a partic. kalpa Dharmas3.
bráhman [L=146571]
N. of the servant of the 10th arhat of the present avasarpiī L.
bráhman [L=146572]
of a magician Ra1jat.
(H1) n.
[L=146547]the sacred word (as
[L=146549]the sacred syllable Om
[L=146550]religious or spiritual knowledge (
[L=146551]holy life (
[p= (exceptionally treated as
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
bhūtā* tman [p= 762,2] [L=151987]
" soul of all beings " , N. of brahmā R.

mahāpurua i.e. viṣṇu Hariv.

śiva L.

Mn. v , 109 Ya1jn5. iii , 34 &c

bhūtā* tman [L=151992]
one whose soul is subdued or purified MBh. (cf. bhāvitā*tman)
bhūtā* tman [L=151993]
" the self consisting of the elements " , the body MaitrUp. Mn. xii , 12 (opp. to ketra-jña).
(H3) m.
[L=151990]the individual soul
[L=151991]" nature of all beings " , war , conflict
(H3B) mfn.
(H3B) m.
mántra [p= 785,3] [L=157237]
(rarely n. ; ifc. f(ā).) , " instrument of thought " , speech , sacred text or speech , a prayer or song of praise RV. AV. TS.
786,1] [L=157238]
veda which contains the texts called c or yajus or sāman (q.v.) as opp. to the brāhmaa and upaniad portion (» IW. 5 &c ) Br. Gr2S3rS. &c

e.g. om śivāya nama) RTL. 61

esp. in modern times employed by the śāktas to acquire superhuman powers ; the primary mantras being held to be 70 millions in number and the secondary innumerable RTL. 197-202) RV. (i , 147 , 4) A1s3vS3r. Mn. Katha1s. Sus3r.

RV. &c

of viṣṇu Vishn2.

śiva MBh.

astrol.) the fifth mansion VarYogay.
mantra [p= 787,1] [L=157540]
[p= 785,3].
mantra [p= 1331,2] [L=337930]
(H2) m.
[p= a Vedic hymn or sacrificial formula , that portion of the
[L=157239]a sacred formula addressed to any individual deity (
[L=157240]a mystical verse or magical formula (sometimes personified) , incantation , charm , spell (
[L=157241]consultation , resolution , counsel , advice , plan , design , secret
(H2) »
(H2) (in
mahā́--nirvāa [p= 797,1] [L=159899]
" the great nirvāa " , total extinction of individual existence Buddh.
(H3) n.
yoga [p= 854,3] [L=172001]
» pp. 856 , 858.
yóga [p= 856,2] [L=172324]
( √1. yuj ; ifc. f(ā).) the act of yoking , joining , attaching , harnessing , putting to (of horses) RV. MBh.

S3Br. Kaus3. MBh.

RV. &c





MBh. Ka1v. &c


Mn. Katha1s. (cf. yoga-nanda)


ib. Kaus3. MBh.

Ka1m. Ma1rkP.

instr. with or without saha , or comp.). MBh. Ka1v. &c (yogami , to agree , consent , acquiesce in anything R. )

MBh. R. VarBr2S.

instr. or comp.) Mn. R. Hariv.

yogāt , yogena and yoga-tas ifc. in consequence of , on account of , by reason of , according to , through) Ka1tyS3r. S3vetUp. Mn. &c
856,3] [p= 856,2] [L=172341]
Ka1t2h. S3rS.
856,3] [L=172342]
°gena ind. and -tas ind. suitably , fitly , duly , in the right manner) MBh. Ka1v. &c

°yoga-tas ind. strenuously , assiduously ; pūrena yogena , with all one's powers , with overflowing zeal) Mn. MBh. &c

esp.) self-concentration , abstract meditation and mental abstraction practised as a system (as taught by patañjali and called the yoga philosophy ; it is the second of the two khya systems , its chief aim being to teach the means by which the human spirit may attain complete union with īśvara or the Supreme Spirit ; in the practice of self-concentration it is closely connected with Buddhism) Up. MBh. Ka1v. &c ( IW. 92)

yoga or abstract meditation Sarvad.

dharma and kriyā) BhP.

yoga system MBh. S3am2k.

khya) the union of soul with matter (one of the 10 mūlika-arthās or radical facts) Tattvas.

pāśupatas) the union of the individual soul with the universal soul Kula7rn2.

pāñcarātras) devotion , pious seeking after God Sarvad.
yóga [L=172351]
(with jainas) contact or mixing with the outer world ib.
yóga [L=172352]
(in astron.) conjunction , lucky conjuncture La1t2y. VarBr2S. MBh. &c

cāndra-yogā and are 13 in number ; without the moon they are called kha-yogā , or nābhasa-yogā) VarBr2S.


of a variable division of time (during which the joint motion in longitude of the sun and moon amounts to 13 degrees 20 minutes ; there are 27 such yogas beginning with vikambha and ending with vaidhti) ib.

arithm.) addition , sum , total Su1ryas. MBh.

Nir. Sus3r. (ifc. = dependent on , ruled by Pa1n2. 2-2 , 8 Va1rtt. 1)

Pa1n2. Sch. Siddh. (cf. yoga-vibhāga)

opp. to hi q.v.) Nir. Prata1p. Ka1tyS3r. Sch.


of a Sch. on the paramārthasāra
(H2) &c
(H1) m.
[L=172325]a yoke , team , vehicle , conveyance
[L=172326]employment , use , application , performance
[L=172327]equipping or arraying (of an army)
[L=172328]fixing (of an arrow on the bow-string)
[L=172329]putting on (of armour)
[L=172330]a remedy , cure
[L=172331]a means , expedient , device , way , manner , method
[L=172332]a supernatural means , charm , incantation , magical art
[L=172333]a trick , stratagem , fraud , deceit
[L=172334]undertaking , business , work
[L=172335]acquisition , gain , profit , wealth , property
[L=172336]occasion , opportunity
[L=172337]any junction , union , combination , contact with (
[L=172338]mixing of various materials , mixture
[L=172339]partaking of , possessing (
[L=172340]connection , relation (
[p= putting together , arrangement , disposition , regular succession
[p= fitting together , fitness , propriety , suitability (
[L=172343]exertion , endeavour , zeal , diligence , industry , care , attention (
[L=172344]application or concentration of the thoughts , abstract contemplation , meditation , (
[L=172345]any simple act or rite conducive to
[L=172346]Yoga personified (as the son of
[L=172347]a follower of the
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
[L=172353]a constellation , asterism (these , with the moon , are called
[L=172354]the leading or principal star of a lunar asterism
[L=172357](in gram.) the connection of words together , syntactical dependence of a word , construction
[L=172358]a combined or concentrated grammatical rule or aphorism
[L=172359]the connection of a word with its root , original or etymological meaning (as
[L=172360]a violator of confidence , spy
lalāa [p= 898,1] [L=181764]
(later form of rārāta q.v.) the forehead , brow AV. &c (°e ind. on the forehead , in front ; the destiny of every individual is believed by the Hindus to be written by brahmā on his forehead on the 6th day after birth » RTL. 370)
(H1) n.
liga--śarīra [p= 902,1] [L=182564]
the subtle body which accompanies the individual spirit or soul in all its transmigrations and is not destroyed by death (it is also called sūkma-ś° q.v. , and since it is the sign and accompaniment of individuality it can never perish till the individualized soul is finally merged in the Universal) Kap. Veda7ntas. ( IW. 53 n. 2) .
(H3) n.
ví--graha 1 [p= 950,2] [L=192968]
(for 2. » vi-grah) freed from " the Seizer " i.e. rāhu (said of the moon) R.
vi-graha 2 [p= 957,2] [L=194540]
(for 1. » p.950.col.2) keeping apart or asunder , isolation Nir. BhP.


esp. of fluids cf. vi-grah) Ka1tyS3r.

opp. to composition) APra1t.

kdantas , taddhitas , all samāsas or compound words , ekaśeas , and all derivative verbs like desideratives &c ; the only words incapable of resolution being the simple verb , the singular of the noun , and a few indeclinables not derived from roots ; all compounds being called nitya or " fixed " , when their meaning cannot be ascertained through an analysis of their component parts ; cf. jamad-agni) Pa1n2. Sch. S3am2k. &c

instr. with or without saha , *rdham or sākam loc. gen. with upari , or comp.) Mn. MBh. &c

guas or measures of policy Mn. vii , 160 [cf. under gua] , also applied to the conflict of hostile planets , in this sense also n. Su1ryas. R. ; acc. with √ k , to make or wage war)

i.e. individual form or shape , form , figure , the body Up. MBh. &c (also applied to the shape of a rainbow ; acc. with √ grah , pari-grah , √ k , upā*- , to assume a form)

MBh. R.

khya) an element
957,3] [L=194550]
of śiva MBh.

skanda's attendants ib.
(H3) mfn.
(H2) m.
[L=194541]division ,
[L=194542]distribution (
[L=194543](in gram.) independence (of a word , as
[L=194544]separation , resolution , analysis , resolution of a compound word into its constituent parts , the separation or analysis of any word capable of separation (such words are
[L=194545]discord , quarrel , contest , strife , war with (
[L=194546](one of the 6
[L=194548]an ornament , decoration
[p= N.
[L=194551]of one of
vi-jñā́na---kevala [p= 961,2] [L=195277]
(with śaivas) an individual soul to which only mala adheres Sarvad.
(H3) mfn.
vi-śea [p= 990,2] [L=200604]
(once in Pan5cat. n. ; ifc. f(ā).) distinction , difference between (two gen. , two loc. , or gen. and instr.) Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c

Mn. MBh. &c

e.g. vka-v° , a species of tree , in comp. often also = special , peculiar , particular , different , e.g. chando-v° , " a particular metre " , viśea-maṇḍana , " a peculiar ornament " ; argha-viśeā , " different prices ") MBh. Ka1v. &c

pl.) various objects Megh.
990,3] [p= 990,2] [L=200608]
comp. often = excellent , superior , choice , distinguished e.g. ākti-v° , " an excellent form " ; cf. viśea-pratipatti) Mn. MBh. &c
990,3] [L=200609]
cf. vi-śeaka and vi-śeaa)

phil.) particularity , individuality , essential difference or individual essence (with the vaiśeikas the 5th cate gory or padā*rtha , belonging to the 9 eternal substances or dravyas , viz. soul , time , place , ether , and the 5 atoms of earth , water , light , air , and mind , which are said to be so essentially different that one can never be the other) IW. 66 &c


rhet.) statement of difference or distinction , individualization , variation Kuval. (cf. viśeo*kti)

= tilaka) L.

geom.) the hypotenuse S3ulbas.

of the primary elements or mahā-bhūtas (q.v.) MaitrUp.



virāj ib.
vi-śea [L=200620]
(ā)n. extraordinary , abundant Ragh. ii , 14 (B. viśeāt for viśeā)
vi-śea [p= 991,3] [L=200836]
» [p= 990,2].
(H2) m.
[L=200605]characteristic difference , peculiar mark , special property , speciality , peculiarity
[L=200606]a kind , species , individual (
[p= distinction , peculiar merit , excellence , superiority (in
[p= (in gram.) a word which defines or limits the meaning of another word (
[L=200611](in medicine) a favourable turn or crisis of a sickness
[L=200613]a sectarian mark , any mark on the forehead (
[L=200616]the earth as an element
[L=200617]the mundane egg
(H2B) mf
(H1) &c
vi-° śein [p= 991,1] [L=200716]
distinct , individual BhP.

ifc.) vying with , rivalling Hariv.
(H3) mfn.
víśva [p= 992,2] [L=200987]
(ā)n. (prob. fr. √1. viś , to pervade cf. Un2. i , 151 ; declined as a pron. like sarva , by which it is superseded in the brāhmaas and later language) all , every , every one

RV. &c

viṣṇu-kṛṣṇa , the soul , intellect &c ) Up. MBh. &c
víśva [L=200990]
(in phil.) the intellectual faculty or (accord. to some) the faculty which perceives individuality or the individual underlying the gross body (sthūla-śarīra-vyaṣṭy-upahita) Veda7ntas.
víśva [L=200991]
N. of a class of gods cf. below
víśva [L=200992]
N. of the number " thirteen " Gol.
víśva [L=200993]
of a class of deceased ancestors Ma1rkP.
víśva [L=200994]
of a king MBh.
víśva [L=200995]
of a well-known dictionary = viśva-prakāśa
víśva [p= 992,2] [p= 992,3] [L=200996]
pl. (víśve , with or scil. devā́s cf. viśve-deva , p.995) " all the gods collectively " or the " All-gods " (a partic. class of gods , forming one of the 9 gaas enumerated under gaadevatā q.v. ; accord. to the viṣṇu and other purāas they were sons of viśvā , daughter of daka , and their names are as follow , 1. vasu , 2. satya , 3. kratu , 4. daka , 5. kāla , 6. kāma , 7. dhti , 8. kuru , 9. purū-ravas , 10. mādravas [?] ; two others are added by some , viz. 11. rocaka or locana , 12. dhvani [or dhūri ; or this may make 13]: they are particularly worshipped at śrāddhas and at the vaiśvadeva ceremony [ RTL. 416] ; moreover accord. to manu [iii , 90 , 121] , offerings should be made to them daily - these privileges having been bestowed on them by brahmā and the pits , as a reward for severe austerities they had performed on the himā*laya: sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the expression viśve devā refers to all the gods or to the particular troop of deities described above ) RV. &c
víśva [p= 992,3] [L=200997]
víśva [L=201007]
the whole world , universe AV. &c &c
víśva [L=201008]
dry ginger Sus3r.
víśva [L=201009]
myrrh L.
víśva [L=201010]
a mystical N. of the sound o Up.
viśva [p= 1332,2] [L=339470]
(H1) mf
[L=200988]whole , entire , universal
[L=200989]all-pervading or all-containing , omnipresent (applied to
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H2) (in
vedā* nta [p= 1016,2] [L=205886]
» p.1017.
vedā́* nta [p= 1017,1] [L=205943]
end of the veda (= " complete knowledge of the veda " cf. vedā*nta-ga) TA1r. MBh.

of the second and most important part of the mīmā or third of the three great divisions of Hindu philosophy (called vedā*nta either as teaching the ultimate scope of the veda or simply as explained in the upaniads which come at the end of the veda ; this system , although belonging to the mīmā [q.v.] and sometimes called uttara-mīmā , " examination of the later portion or jñāna-kāṇḍa [q.v.] of the veda " , is really the one sole orthodox exponent of the pantheistic creed of the Hindus of the present day - a creed which underlies all the polytheism and multiform mythology of the people ; its chief doctrine [as expounded by śakara] is that of advaita i.e. that nothing really exists but the One Self or Soul of the Universe called brahman [neut.] or paramā*tman , and that the jīvātman or individual human soul and indeed all the phenomena of nature are really identical with the paramā*tman , and that their existence is only the result of ajñāna [otherwise called avidyā] or an assumed ignorance on the part of that one universal Soul which is described as both Creator and Creation ; Actor and Act ; Existence , Knowledge and Joy , and as devoid of the three qualities [see gua] ; the liberation of the human soul , its deliverance from transmigrations , and re-union with the paramā*tman , with which it is really identified , is only to be effected by a removal of that ignorance through a proper understanding of the vedā*nta ; this system is also called brahma-mīmā and śārīrakamīmā , " inquiring into Spirit or embodied Spirit " ; the founder of the school is said to have been vyāsa , also called bādarāyaa , and its most eminent teacher was śakarā*cārya) Up. MBh. &c
vedā́* nta [L=205945]
the upaniads or works on the vedā*nta philosophy Kull. on Mn. vi , 83.
(H3) &c
(H2) m.
(H2B) m. pl.
vaiśein [p= 1026,3] [L=207833]
specific , individual Sa1m2khyak. Sch.
(H2) mfn.
vy-akta [p= 1029,1] [L=208317]
» cols. 2 , 3.
vy-ákta [p= 1029,2] [L=208379]
adorned , embellished , beautiful RV.

am , ind. apparently , evidently , certainly) MBh. Ka1v. &c

» below)

» -vāc)

opp. to a-vyakta , transcendental) MBh. BhP.




vy-ákta [L=208388]
heat L.
vy-ákta [L=208389]
a learned man L.
vy-ákta [L=208390]
an initiated monk S3i1l.
vy-ákta [L=208391]
" the manifested One " , N. of viṣṇu MW.
vy-ákta [L=208392]
of one of the 11 gaā*dhipas (with jainas)
vy-ákta [L=208393]
(in khya) " the developed or evolved " (as the product of a-vyakta q.v.) , Sa1m2khyak. (cf. IW. 82)
(H1) vy-akti
(H2) mfn.
[L=208380]caused to appear , manifested , apparent , visible , evident (
[L=208381]developed , evolved (
[L=208382]distinct , intelligible (
[L=208383]perceptible by the senses (
[L=208384]specified , distinguished
[L=208385]specific , individual
[L=208387]wise , learned
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
vy-akti [p= 1029,3] [L=208418]
visible appearance or manifestation , becoming evident or known or public (acc. with √ bhaj , ā-gam , and ā- , to appear , become manifest) MBh. Ka1v. &c


opp. to jāti) Bhag. VarBr2S. &c

Pa1n2. 1-2 , 51


(H2) f.
[L=208419]specific appearance , distinctness , individuality
[L=208420]an individual (
[L=208421](in gram.) gender
[L=208422]case , inflection , the proper form of any inflected word
[L=208423]a vowel (?)
vy-áṣṭi [p= 1034,3] [L=209258]
attainment , success TS. S3Br. &c

vedā*nta) singleness , individuality , a separated aggregate (such as man , viewed as a part of a whole [e.g. of the Universal Soul] while himself composed of individual parts ; opp. to sam-aṣṭi q.v.) S3am2k. Veda7ntas.
vy-áṣṭi [L=209260]
N. of a preceptor S3Br.
(H2) f.
(H2B) m.
vy-ásta---tā [p= 1035,1] [L=209325]
severalty , individuality W.


(H3) f.
[L=209325.1]individual inherence
[L=209325.2]agitation , bewilderment
vy-ásta---tva [L=209326]
severalty , individuality W.


(H3) n.
[L=209326.1]individual inherence
[L=209326.2]agitation , bewilderment
samavā* yin [p= 1158,1] [L=233899]
met together , closely connected or united , concomitant , inherent in (comp.) Kan2. Sus3r. Va1s. Sarvad.

samavā* yin [L=233901]
a partner L.
samavā* yin [L=233902]
(with purua) , the soul combined (with a body) , the individual soul Ya1jn5. iii , 125
samavā* yin [L=233903]
having or consisting of a combination (of the humours) Sus3r.
(H2) mfn.
[L=233900]aggregated , multitudinous
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
ha 1 [p= 1286,1] [L=260036]
(ifc. f(ā). ; accord. to Un2. iii , 62 fr. √1. han , " to go? ") a goose , gander , swan , flamingo (or other aquatic bird , considered as a bird of passage ; sometimes a mere poetical or mythical bird , said in RV. to be able to separate soma from water , when these two fluids are mixed , and in later literature , milk from water when these two are mixed ; also forming in RV. the vehicle of the aśvins , and in later literature that of brahmā ; ifc. also = " best or chief among ") RV. &c

virāj , nārāyaa , viṣṇu , śiva , kāma , and the Sun ; du. " the universal and the individual Spirit " ; accord. to Sa1y. resolvable into aha sa , " I am that ") Up. MBh. Hariv. &c


MBh. Hariv. BhP.

partic. constellation VarBr2S.


Naigh. i , 14

accord. to some , " a buffalo ") VarBr2S.


partic. form VarBr2S.

mantra or mystical text Cat.



of two metres Col.


N. of the letter h Cat.


of a deva-gandharva Hariv.

dānava ib.

brahmā BhP.

vasu-deva ib.

a-riṣṭā MBh.

brahma-datta and general of jarā-sadha ib.

&c Cat.
1286,2] [L=260060]


N. of the Brahmans in plaka-dvīpa BhP.
hasa 2 [p= 1286,3] [L=260193]
P. °sati , to act or behave like a swan Subh.
(H1) m.
[L=260037]the soul or spirit (typified by the pure white colour of a goose or swan , and migratory like a goose ; sometimes " the Universal Soul or Supreme Spirit " , identified with
[L=260038]one of the vital airs
[L=260039]a kind of ascetic
[L=260040]a man of supernatural qualities born under a
[L=260041]an unambitious monarch
[L=260042]a horse
[L=260043]an excellent draught-ox (
[L=260044]a mountain
[L=260045]a temple of a
[L=260046]a kind of
[L=260048]envy , malice
[L=260050](in music) a kind of measure
[L=260051]a mystical
[L=260052]a spiritual preceptor
[L=260054]of a
[L=260055]of a son of
[L=260056]of a son of
[L=260057]of a son of
[L=260058]of a son of
[L=260059]of various authors
[p= of one of the Moon's horses
[L=260061]of a mountain
(H2) Nom.
éko* ti---bhāva [p= 230,3] [L=39934]
state of concentration on one single object , tranquillity , blissful serenity (state of mind , following after conversion) , ( Buddh. )
eko* ti-bhāva [p= 1323,1] [L=325390]
Buddh. ).
(H4) m.
(H2) (read, "the thread-like continuity of personality or individual life running through the whole cycle of re-births",